CANNABIS VS HEMP VS MARIJUANA

 

cannabis vs hemp vs marihuana

 

The word Cannabis encompasses the strains of both marijuana and hemp plants.

On this basis, hemp is a cannabis plant with a content of THC below 0,2% (<0,3% for the U.S.). Specifically, it is the “Cannabis Sativa L”  plant. Hemp growing is legal almost everywhere across EU (as far as it comes from certified seeds), and so it is in many countries worldwide.

Marijuana plants, for their part, contain much more elevated levels of THC (up to almost 30%).

ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM (ECS)

endocannabinoid system

 

The Endocannabinoid System of human body consists of a network of receptors and messengers (system of communication) which regulates many physiological functions, among which: sleep, appetite, mood, motor control, pain perception, pleasure, immunological system, memory, temperature… And many other bodily functions.

The three main components of the Endocannabinoid System are the endocannabinoids, the cannabinoid receptors and the metabolic enzymes.

Cannabinoids are natural chemicals of two types:

Endocannabinoids: synthesized by our own body from nutrients such as fatty acids.

– Phytocannabinoids: naturally occuring in cannabis and hemp plants (Cannabis Sativa L.). There have been found over 113 in the hemp plant, where CBD is one of the most prominent and important ones.

The Endocannabinoid System works through receptors that are found on the surface of human and animal cells. The receptors are the parts of neurons activated by neurotransmitters (chemical messages), which allow the passage of messages from one neuron to another. The two receptors with which the Endocannabinoid System works are CB1 and CB2. CB1 is found in the Central Nervous System and CB2 in the immune cells, GI tract, and Peripheral Nervous System.

Metabolic enzymes

Metabolic enzymes control endocannabinoid levels. You may have heard about dopamine, serotonin and endorphins. These are neurotransmitters in the body that release happy or excited feelings. Endocannabinoids such as Anandamine work in a similar way. The two major endocannabinoids are Anandamide and 2-AG (2-Arachidonoylglycerol), and they activate two different cannabinoid receptors: CB1 and CB2.

CBD modulates (inhibits) FAAH enzyme (fatty acid amide hydrolase), which degrades the Anandamide. Through this modulation, more Anandamide becomes available to activate cannabinoid receptors.

CBD (according to this study and this other one) also reduces the MAGL (monoacylglycerol lipase) activity, which breaks down the 2-AG, a full agonist at CB1 and CB2 endocannabinoid receptors and main ligand (linker molecule) to the CB2 receptor.

In short: by reducing FAAH and MAGL activity, CBD promotes more Anandamide and 2A-G available to our bodies, which results in greater activation of our body’s cannabinoids receptors.

Simply put, less FAAH and MAGL means more anandamide and 2AG, resulting in greater cannabinoid receptor activity throughout the body.

All this helps regulate the Endocannabinoid System, which may result in less overall inflammation, reducing or eliminating certain symptoms.

CBD VS THC

cbd molecule

CBD is the second most common occurring compound (cannabinoid)  in most cannabis plants varieties. It is mainly obtained from industrial hemp (Cannabis Sativa L.). In an official report submitted on past November 2017, World Health Organization (WHO) stated that CBD (cannabidiol) lacks of any psychoactive effects. It also claimed that there is neither evidence of dependence potential, nor case reports of abuse or dependance to the substance, and that it does not present public health problems.

On the contrary, THC (Δ9-THC, tetrahidrocannabinol) is also a cannabinoid present in cannabis plants (being below a 0,2% proportion in hemp), which is mainly obtained from marijuana, that does have psychoactive effects, being responsible for the so called “high”, and reason for the recreational use of cannabis. Although it also presents some benefits when consuming it, such as chronic pain relief, increased appetite or reduction in nausea, hence the use of therapeutic marijuana.

Besides, CBD is not only a non-psychoactive cannabinoid, but, according to several studies, it can counteract the intoxication effects that THC generates, ought to its antipsychotic properties, as well as reduce its secondary effects (tachycardia, paranoia, anxiety…). Some of them are presented hereunder:

Like this one, which confirms that it is verified that CBD blocks the anxiety provoked by THC.

In addition we have this other one, which states that CBD reduces intoxication associated to THC, panic, sedation, anxiety and tachycardia.

With regard to memory, this study claims that CBD may be able to attenuate the memory-impairing effects of THC in cannabis smokers.

ENTOURAGE EFFECT

Simply put, the Entourage Effect is the wider impact the phytocannabinoids as a group has on the endocannabinoid system in our bodies. Instead of isolating phytocannabinoids like CBD and CBG and applying them to our bodily system, a whole range of phytocannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids work more efficiently in a team. As Aristotle would similarly say, “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts”. Cannuvo™ CBD oil is full spectrum – meaning you will benefit from a full range of cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids, getting you one of the best cocktails available from nature.

The Entourage Effect has been studied in several scientific studies, like this one from 1998, this article from 2011 or this recent study from 2018 which compiles “several pertinent examples of the entourage effect.”

FORMS OF CBD: FULL SPECTRUM | BROAD SPECTRUM | ISOLATE

full spectrum vs broad spectrum vs isolate cbd

 

Full Spectrum CBD Products: obtained from a full hemp plant extraction, they contain all naturally occurring cannabinoids (CBD, <0.2% THC, THCA, CBG, CBN, THCV, CBDA…), terpenes, flavonoids, vitamins, minerals and plant proteins, so that it is possible to benefit from all the components and their Entourage Effect.

For this reason, in Cannuvo™ we offer Full Spectrum products, with THC levels well below legal limits and fully compliant, that allow to take advantage of the benefits generated by the teamwork of the plant’s components.

Broad Spectrum CBD Products: obtained through further processing the Full Spectrum extract in order to remove all trace of THC, they contain all naturally occurring cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, vitamins, minerals and plant proteins, except THC. Thus, again, the chance of benefiting from all the components and their Entourage Effect is achieved.

Isolate CBD Products: obtained through further processing the Full Spectrum extract in order to remove all components except CBD, remaining ± 99% of pure CBD and 0.0 THC.